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National Journal of Maxillofacial Surgery
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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 145-149

Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma transformation from ameloblastic fibroma

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Divya Sanjeevi Ramakrishnan
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha University, 162, Poonamallee High Road, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/njms.NJMS_100_20

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Ameloblastic fibrosarcoma (AFS) is an extremely rare malignant odontogenic tumor. It is composed of benign odontogenic epithelium, resembling that of ameloblastoma, and a mesenchymal part exhibiting features of fibrosarcoma. The development of this lesion in the jaws is either de novo or from preexisting ameloblastic fibroma which has been well documented. The most commonly affected site within the jaw is the posterior mandible. These tumors show local aggressiveness and a high tendency to recur. We present a case of a 33-year-old female patient with swelling of the right posterior mandible for 2 months and progressive paresthesia of the same region for the past 6 months. Patient's history revealed undergoing surgical enucleation for ameloblastic fibroma before a year in the same region as current swelling. Examination of the swelling revealed an ulceroprolifeartive Growth of 6 × 4.5 cm extending from premolar to molar region. Primary investigation involved biopsy of the swelling, which was reported as sarcoma for which resection of the right hemimandible and selective neck dissection was performed. Following surgery, the final histopathology report of the resected specimen was reported to be AFS. One year after the surgical procedure, the patient is clinically and radiologically disease-free. Considering the aggressive nature of these tumors, it is vital to give an accurate diagnosis through biopsy, which is considered as gold standard diagnostic evidence, so that the surgeon plans the appropriate therapeutic decision. Knowledge of this rare entity and its histologic features as opposed to the more common benign counterparts such as ameloblastoma or ameloblastic fibroma is crucial as the latter involves a conservative treatment approach while the former can only be treated through aggressive resections.

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