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National Journal of Maxillofacial Surgery
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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 367-375

Association of human papillomavirus and Epstein–Barr virus with squamous cell carcinoma of upper aerodigestive tract

Department of Pathology, Otorhinolaryngology, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Lity Dhar
Room No. 62, Pathology Block, Maulana Azad Medical College, Bahadur Shah Zafar Road, New Delhi - 110 002
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/njms.njms_315_21

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Background: Cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) are fifth most common cancer in the world with around 10,55,000 new cases and 7,25,000 deaths worldwide. Tobacco and alcohol act synergistically and are the two most important etiological factors responsible for about 75% of SCC. Studies have reported changing trends in the incidence of SCC showing an increasing shift in epidemiology attributed to the infection by viruses. The most commonly implicated viruses are the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Aim and Objective: To study association of Human Papilloma virus (HPV) and Epstein Barr virus (EBV) with 100 newly diagnosed cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) and correlate its association with clinical parameters, histomorphological grade and staging using immunohistochemical markers p16, LMP1, p53, p63. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Pathology, Maulana Azad medical college and associated hospitals, New Delhi from September 2018-April 2019. Specimens was routinely processed. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was done using p16, LMP1, p53, p63 monoclonal antibodies. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS 20 software. The quantitative analysis was done using Pearson chi-square test. Probability values < 0.05 was be considered statistically significant. Results: HPV was present in 29% cases while EBV in 38% cases. Oral cavity was the most common site involved by both HPV and EBV. Co-infectivity was found in 4% cases. There was significant male predominance in both. HPV was more prevalent in age >45 years while EBV was equally distributed in <45 years and >45 years. Moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma was the commonest grade involved by both the viruses. A significant correlation was found between EBV and alcohol. p53 positivity had an inverse relationship with HPV positivity. P63 expression was higher in HPV and EBV positive cases. Conclusion: In resource constraint settings, p16 and Latent membrane protein 1 can be used as surrogacy markers for Human Papilloma virus and Epstein Barr virus along with p53 and p63 for its association with histomorphological grade and stage.

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