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National Journal of Maxillofacial Surgery
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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 322-329

Immunotherapeutic and their immunological aspects: Current treatment strategies and agents

1 Department of Thoracic Surgery, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Urology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Center for Advance Research, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
4 Department of Surgery, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Shailendra Kumar
Department of Thoracic Surgery, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh - 226 003
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/njms.njms_62_22

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Cancer is often caused by the immune system's inability to deal with malignant cells and allows them to progress and proliferate. Emerging cancerous cells constantly evade the immune system, and as a result, these cancerous cells acquire more mutations and exhibit the deadliest characteristics among malignant tumors. The importance of understanding tumor immunology, particularly the functions of tumor antigens and the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, is highlighted by the effectiveness of cancer immunotherapy therapies. Many innovative immunotherapy drugs that effectively battle cancer have been produced since the 1980s. At present, in cancer treatment, immunotherapy appears as a paradigm that targets immune checkpoints of tumor cells such as CTLA-4, PD-1, and monoclonal antibodies (MABs), although the treatment of cancer is classified into non-specific and specific types. Specific types define the antibody targeting cell receptors as a new cancer treatment modality. For a number of malignancies, checkpoint inhibitors, MABs, and their derivatives have become standard-of-care therapy. Other immunotherapy techniques, such as most cancer vaccines and cell-based therapies, are still in the experimental stage. Many new immunotherapy techniques and agents are being explored and evaluated in clinical trials, which is a good thing. Thus, this review discusses the role of checkpoint inhibitors and MABs in the treatment of tumor cells. Moreover, these findings help us to understand the mechanism of action of this class of therapeutics and provide support for the management of cancer treatment.

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