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National Journal of Maxillofacial Surgery
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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 238-242

Midface fracture pattern in a tertiary care hospital – A prospective study

1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kantipur Dental College, Kathmandu, Nepal
2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Vydehi Institute of Dental Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Suresh Menon
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Vydehi Institute of Dental Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/njms.njms_378_21

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Introduction: The midface with multiple bones and cavities is vulnerable to fractures more commonly. Midface is one of the most frequently injured areas of the body, accounting for 23%–97% of all facial fractures. The classic LeFort type of fractures are uncommon nowadays and a more common picture is more severe forms primarily due to the high-speed vehicles that are a major cause of these fractures. It, therefore, has become imperative to determine the commonly occurring patterns of fractures in this area in the present time for a better insight into diagnosis and treatment plans. The aim of this article was to determine fracture patterns in midface trauma to ease the treatment planning in such a scenario. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included 114 patients who reported to a tertiary hospital during a 4-year period and were diagnosed with suspected midface fractures. The etiology and pattern of fractures of midface were assessed based on history, clinical examination, and imaging data. The diagnosis of a fracture was based on the clinical history, signs and symptoms, manual examination, and correct interpretation of radiographs and computed tomography. Midface fractures were recorded as LeFort I, II, III, dentoalveolar, palatal, zygomatic complex fracture, nasal bones, naso-orbital-ethmoidal complex, and orbital and zygomatic arch fractures. Etiological factors were classified as road traffic accidents (RTAs), fall, assault, and sports injuries. Results: During the 4-year period, a total of 114 patients were included. Patients' ages ranged from 17 to 68 years, with 102 males and 12 females. The most common fracture in this study was found to be zygomatic complex fractures (52%), and RTA was identified as the main cause of fracture in this study (79.2%). Conclusion: The midface fractures are more common in males due to the propensity of males to use two-wheelers more than females. The prominence of the zygoma makes it more vulnerable to fractures than rest of the bones in the midface. Increased speed of vehicles and lack of discipline in following traffic rules have resulted in RTA, being the biggest etiological factor in midface injuries.

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