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National Journal of Maxillofacial Surgery
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 216-222

Mango-shaped Bi-paddled pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstruction for large full-thickness defects post resection of squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity: An analysis of 232 cases


1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Surgical Oncology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Faculty of Dental Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Mandar Tilak
Department of Surgical Oncology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/njms.njms_374_21

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Objectives: The objective of the study was to examine the feasibility of bi-paddled pectoralis major myocutaneous (PMMC) flap reconstruction in patient undergoing full thickness composite resection. Materials and Methods: Inclusion criteria: The subjects chosen were patients with clinically T4A squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa, lower alveolus, and maxilla in with skin involvement. Patients required a full-thickness composite resection of intraoral lesion, bone (mandibular segment and/or maxilla), and overlying involved skin and had modified radical neck dissection. Exclusion criteria: Patients not requiring full thickness composite resection including skin. Patients were observed postoperatively for early and late postoperative complications, starting of oral feeding, post-operative trismus, and dysphagia during subsequent follow-up and cosmetic outcome. Results: Overall, the complication rate was 33.8% out of which only 7.8% required major re-surgery with second flap reconstruction. This is comparable with other large series of PMMC flap. Clavien-Dindo Grade I complications were seen in 9.5%, Grade II in 69.7%, Grade IIIA in 13.4%, and Grade IIIB in 7.45% of patients. Full-thickness partial flap necrosis included necrosis of either the external or the internal skin paddle. There were 15 cases – 6.5% of full thickness external paddle necrosis. These were mostly in patients with bite composite resections and having a larger random fasciocutaneous distal component of the flap without underlying muscle. Furthermore, 40% of these patients were females. In females, the flap necrosis comprised 4 of the 12 patients (33.33%). Conclusion: Pectoralis major mycocutaneous flap has been a boon to reconstruction of the oral cavity post its inception. In case of locally advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity, in many instances, there is a clinically significant cervical lymph nodal spread vessels post mandating a comprehensive lymph node dissection. PMMC flap provides a robust well vascularized muscular cover to the cervical vessels poststernocleidomastoid excision.


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